Reproductive Surgery plays an important role in the management of infertility.
Laparoscopy, a technique used for many years for diagnosis and for tubal sterilization is now being used to treat a variety of conditions that previously required large abdominal incisions such as endometriosis, ovarian cysts, ectopic pregnancies, uterine fibroids, and to perform hysterectomies, when suitable.
Approximately 35 to 40% of infertility is caused by tubal factor, which is impairment of the Fallopian tubes caused by either blockages or adhesions (scarred tissue) that prevent or reduce the chances of conception. Another factor in decreased fertility is endometriosis; both conditions are treated with reproductive surgery on an outpatient basis.
During surgery, telescopic instruments equipped with a video camera are inserted through an incision of 1 cm wide, cut below the navel, in order to examine the internal organs. Two more incisions above the public hairline are necessary to allow insertion of additional instruments. The laparoscopy procedure is performed under anesthesia and lasts for a period of 1 to 3 hours depending on the findings.