Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an inflammation/infection of one or all of the following upper genital tract organs: uterus, fallopian tubes, ovaries, broad ligaments (attachments of the uterus within the abdomen), or the lining of the pelvic cavity called the peritoneum. It results from an infection that travels up from the vagina or the cervix and is most commonly caused by chlamydia, gonorrhea, or a combination of both. It occurs annually in about 1-2% of young, sexually active females.
Patients with PID can be asymptomatic or develop severe abdominal pain and high fever. PID can also cause damage to fallopian tubes and adhesion formation, increasing the risk of ectopic pregnancy and infertility.
Treatment consists of antibiotic therapy on either an inpatient or outpatient basis depending on the severity of the infection and the patient's symptoms. Cases which do not respond to antibiotic therapy may require surgical intervention in the form of a laparoscopy.