A vaginal septum is a membrane or "wall" that can either run transversely or lengthwise across the vagina, dividing it into two halves. Transverse vaginal septums, when crossing the complete width of the vagina, cause obstruction of menstrual flow. They are usually discovered when girls enter puberty and experience amenorrhea (lack of a menstrual period) and cyclic pelvic pain due to the accumulated blood in the uterus. Longitudinal vaginal septa are usually asymptomatic, although they can cause obstruction of labor and prevent vaginal delivery of the baby.
Treatment is based on the type (transverse or longitudinal) and extent (partial or complete) of vaginal septum present as well as the patient's symptoms and wishes. All corrective surgeries are performed via a vaginal approach.