Cystoscopy is a procedure where a small telescopic camera (about 5 mm in diameter) is placed through the urethra and into the bladder. It is usually performed as part of a larger procedure that includes either laparoscopy or hysteroscopy. Cystoscopy allows direct visualization of the bladder lining and the openings of the ureters (tubes that connect the kidney to the bladder) into the bladder. It can be used to diagnose endometriosis of the bladder, which can cause bladder pain or symptoms such as frequency and urgency, similar to a urinary tract infection. Other abnormalities of the bladder lining such as chronic inflammation, interstitial cystitis, polyps, and bladder cancer can also be diagnosed. Cystoscopy is indicated in patients with chronic bladder complaints, recurrent urinary tract infections unresponsive to medical therapy, and bladder pain. It is also used to assure that occult injuries to the bladder and ureters have not occurred after they have been treated for conditions such as endometriosis and adhesions.
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