Sex Selection for Medical Reasons Accomplished by PGD
Preimplantation Genetic Diagnosis (PGD) can be used to prevent genetically transmitted diseases. When using PGD, only embryos of the desired gender are returned to the uterus, giving a nearly 100% accuracy rate of children born without carrying the genetic diseased detected! One of the largest and most experienced PGD laboratories is in Athens, Greece, at EmBIO IVF Clinic.
What is PGD?
Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis is a form of prenatal diagnosis performed on early embryos prior to implantation in the uterus and initiation of pregnancy. It determines the presence, absence or change in a specific gene or chromosome prior to the placement of the embryo in the womb.
The first step to PGD is the creation of embryos outside the woman’s body by in vitro fertilisation (IVF). These embryos are cultured until they are between 6-10 cells (Day 3), so that one or two cells can be removed (cell biopsy) for genetic analysis. The removal of these cells does not harm the development of the embryo.
The cells are biopsied by either fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) for chromosome disorders or polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for single gene defects. Embryos not carrying the genetic disorder tested can then be transferred to the uterus, aiming for a normal pregnancy. Further analysis of the developing conceptus later in pregnancy can confirm the results of PGD analysis. This is done by sampling the placental material (chorionic villus sampling).
Genetic Diseases Diagnosed by PGD
Diseases associated with a high risk of transmission (25-50%) and significant morbidity and mortality rates (e.g. aneuploidy) can be screened for by Pre-implantation Diagnosis.
IVF Success with PGD
Studies have shown that PGD can double the chances of successful implantation of the embryo, reduce pregnancy loss as much as three times, and increase the likelihood of live births. Data even found a reduction in miscarriage among IVF patients who did not have recurrent miscarriages, from 23% to 9%. In women with an average age of 40, they found that the chance of an embryo to implant successfully doubled.
IUI with Gender Selection
The majority of fertile, healthy couples use MicroSort® with intrauterine insemination (IUI). Monitoring of your cycle for ovulation must occur to determine the best timing for IUI. Careful monitoring using blood hormone tests and pelvic ultrasound may be recommended to improve the timing of insemination (and pregnancy rate). Monitoring can also be completed with your local obstetrician/gynaecologist or local infertility physician.
On the scheduled day of the IUI – Sex Selection procedure at EmBIO laboratory, the husband will produce a semen specimen in the morning. The sperm will be sorted and the wife will have her IUI done later that same day.
Donor Egg IVF with Gender Selection for Medical Reasons
During an in vitro fertilization PGD-IVF cycle with intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), if the wife is over 39, PGD-sorted specimens can be used with a donor egg IVF cycle.
Gender Selection with Donor Sperm
If needed, appropriately screened semen donor samples from EmBIO Cryobank can be used. A number of semen vials are usually required in order to obtain an adequate number of total motile sperm (sperm quality). The sufficiently motile sperm samples are thawed and the sorting is then performed.
PGD to Prevent a Miscarriage
Many couples opt through PGD to screen their embryos for certain chromosomal abnormalities (i.e. Down syndrome) or familial genetic diseases. More than 50% of embryos from women aged 35 to 39 have chromosomal abnormalities. For a woman over 40, the percentage increases to 80% or higher. PGD screened embryos have a reduced risk of chromosome abnormalities, and a lower spontaneous loss rate.
The bottom line is that, IVF and PGD provide a greater chance for having normal embryos of the desired gender available for transfer and cryopreservation.
Would you like us to help you conceive a healthy boy or girl?
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Or call EmBIO fertility specialist Maria Rapti on 0030 6973000 435.